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(PDF) Eneolithic horse exploitation in the Eurasian steppes: Diet, ritual and riding




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Eneolithic horse exploitation in the Eurasian steppes: Diet, ritual and riding

March 2000 Antiquity 74(283):75-86 DOI: 10.1017/S0003598X00066163 Authors: David Anthony Hartwick College Dorcas R. Brown Dorcas R. Brown This person is not on ResearchGate, or hasn't claimed this research yet. Download full-text PDF Read full-text Download full-text PDF Read full-text Download citation Copy link Link copied Read full-text Download citation Copy link Link copied Citations (57) References (51)

Abstract

The symbolism of the horse in Eneolithic society is explored in this paper. Recent excavations in the Eurasian steppes demonstrate the importance of horses before domestication and horse riding became common; showing they were eaten, exploited and revered.

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Tot aquest període es caracteritzà per una economia basada en un pastoralisme nòmade, per un avenç general en la tecnologia eqüestre i pel sorgiment de la figura del guerrer a cavall. El cavall, doncs, fou un element que va contribuir als canvis socioculturals i tecnològics que tingueren lloc durant el pas de l'edat del bronze a la del ferro (Anthony, 2000; Anthony i Brown, 2000, 2011Anthony et al., 2006;Brown i Anthony, 1998;Bokovenko, 1995a, Figura 7 Collage fotogràfic on s'aprecia la diversitat paisatgística de la zona estudiada (Olga Saliy Photography, 2018) 1995b; Davis-Kimball et al., 1995;Hanks, 2000Hanks, , 2002Hanks, , 2010Heibert, 1992;Koryakova i Hanks, 2006;Levine, 1999Levine, , 2005Levine et al., 2005;Mallory et al., 2002;Rudenko, 1970). Tot aquest període es caracteritzà per una economia basada en un pastoralisme nòmade, per un avenç general en la tecnologia eqüestre i pel sorgiment de la figura del guerrer a cavall. El cavall, doncs, fou un element que va contribuir als canvis socioculturals i tecnològics que tingueren lloc durant el pas de l'edat del bronze a la del ferro (Anthony, 2000; Anthony i Brown, 2000 , 2011Anthony et al., 2006;Brown i Anthony, 1998;Bokovenko, 1995a, Figura 7 Collage fotogràfic on s'aprecia la diversitat paisatgística de la zona estudiada (Olga Saliy Photography, 2018) 1995b; Davis-Kimball et al., 1995;Hanks, 2000Hanks, , 2002Hanks, , 2010Heibert, 1992;Koryakova i Hanks, 2006;Levine, 1999Levine, , 2005Levine et al., 2005;Mallory et al., 2002;Rudenko, 1970). La locomoció a cavall va comportar diferents beneficis per a l'ésser humà (Agüera, 2014; Anthony, 2007; Anthony et al., 2000Anthony et al., , 2006Anthony et al., , 2011Brown et al., 1998;Damgaard et al., 2018;Gaunitz et al., 2018;Hanks, 2010;Levine, 1999Levine, , 2005Librado et al., 2017;Outram et al., 2009;Price, 2018;Schubert et al., 2014;Taylor et al., 2017;Warmuth et al., 2012). Així, entre d'altres, en l'àmbit militar, és fàcil deduir com la invenció del carro i de la munta va oferir grans avantatges a les forces bèl·liques que es basaven i feien ús d'aquestes innovacions. El cavall dins la cultura Pazyryk -TFG Thesis Full-text available Feb 2019 Elsa Bernad Alamo The interest of the following study is to define the bond between human and horse within the Pazyryk community, a culture from the middle Iron Age that was developed in the Altai region (south of Siberia). The aim of this paper is to approach to the person-animal relationship based on the archaeological information from the funerary context, the kurgans. On this matter, four are the elements of archaeological nature that have been consider: the buried horses; their equipment and dresses and the horse representations on objects and tattoos. At the same time, it is wanted to understand the horse as a subject, who can influence in people’s life, and not only as a passive object. All in all, the present work tries to put some light to the question how may the horse have been seen and which roles might it have played within the Pazyryk community. View Show abstract Archeological discoveries from Dereivka (Dnieper region, 5950-5530 BP) [17], reveal the presence of complete horse skeletons; however, some of them were carbon-dated to a much younger period (2790 BP-70 AD) [22] . The absence of old animals and an overwhelming majority of males [23,24], may suggest that horses there were rather raised than hunted for meat [25], but could also point to the specific hunting strategies [17]. From the Eurasian Steppes to the Roman Circuses: A Review of Early Development of Horse Breeding and Management Article Full-text available Jun 2021 Weronika Klecel E. Martyniuk The domestication of the horse began about 5500 years ago in the Eurasian steppes. In the following millennia horses spread across the ancient world, and their role in transportation and warfare affected every ancient culture. Ownership of horses became an indicator of wealth and social status. The importance of horses led to a growing interest in their breeding and management. Many phenotypic traits, such as height, behavior, and speed potential, have been proven to be a subject of selection; however, the details of ancient breeding practices remain mostly unknown. From the fourth millennium BP, through the Iron Age, many literature sources thoroughly describe horse training systems, as well as various aspects of husbandry, many of which are still in use today. The striking resemblance of ancient and modern equine practices leaves us wondering how much was accomplished through four thousand years of horse breeding. View Show abstract However, direct radiocarbon dating of this horse revealed it to be an intrusion from the early Iron Age, ca. 700-200 BCE 21 , dashing any direct links between the site and human management of domestic horses, and dimming enthusiasm for Deriyevka as the epicenter for domestication. Rethinking the evidence for early horse domestication at Botai Article Full-text available Apr 2021 William Timothy Treal Taylor Christina Barron-Ortiz Despite its transformative impact on human history, the early domestication of the horse (Equus caballus) remains exceedingly difficult to trace in the archaeological record. In recent years, a scientific consensus emerged linking the Botai culture of northern Kazakhstan with the first domestication of horses, based on compelling but largely indirect archaeological evidence. A cornerstone of the archaeological case for domestication at Botai is damage to the dentition commonly linked with the use of bridle mouthpieces, or “bit wear.” Recent archaeogenetic analyses reveal, however, that horse remains from Botai are not modern domesticates but instead the Przewalski’s horse, E. przewalskii—warranting reevaluation of evidence for domestication. Here, we compare osteological traits hypothesized to have been caused by horse transport at Botai with wild Pleistocene equids in North America. Our results suggest that damage observed in Botai horse teeth is likely generated by natural disturbances in dental development and wear, rather than through contact with bridle equipment. In light of a careful reconsideration of the mid-Holocene archaeological record of northern Eurasia, we suggest that archaeological materials from Botai are most effectively explained through the regularized mass harvesting of wild Przewalski’s’ horses—meaning that the origins of horse domestication may lie elsewhere. View Show abstract Ever since bitted bridles were introduced by our horse-riding ancestors up to 6,000 years ago (Anthony and Brown, 2000) , their use has become synonymous with guidance and control of the domesticated horse and the sight of bits in horses' mouths is now normalized. Over the past 30 -35 years, however, there has been a gradual transition towards various forms of unbitted bridles including bitless bridles, halters, cavessons and hackamores, a trend that may have gained traction with the introduction of natural horsemanship to Australia in the mid-1980s. TITLE: Lifting the Veil on Bridles: an investigation into the bridle choices of Australian equestrians and the scientific basis for these choices Thesis Full-text available Mar 2021 Judith Matusiewicz Although bitted bridles have been the conventional method for guiding and controlling ridden horses for up to 6,000 years, they are increasingly the focus of scientific studies investigating their impact on horse welfare. Moreover, there has been a transition towards various forms of unbitted bridles with a corresponding emergence of bitless bridle clubs and associations. The reasons for this, along with the rationale for riders’ bridle choices overall, has never been the subject of scientific enquiry and, therefore, this study is novel. It set out to investigate whether bridle choices were based on four possible motivations – ‘tradition’, ‘rider safety’, ‘horse welfare’ and ‘club rules’ - and whether scientific evidence was available to support these choices. The data obtained from adult Australian equestrians by means of an anonymous, cross-sectional survey showed ‘horse welfare’ had the greatest influence on equestrians’ bridle choices, and that this influence was equally important for both bitted and unbitted bridle users. Respondents were also very influenced by ‘rider safety’ and ‘club rules’ in bridle choice but were unlikely to be influenced by ‘tradition’. Of the four variables, ‘horse welfare’ was the only one that was supported by scientific evidence. This topic polarized respondents in that both bitted and unbitted bridle users questioned the equine welfare implications of the other’s bridle choice. There is a reticence amongst some respondents to acknowledge bits can cause clinical problems regardless of rider experience or when a horse’s flight response is triggered. Club rules were found to discriminate against equestrians who wished to participate in club activities using bitless bridles and the survey results confirm equestrians’ preference to base their bridle choices on scientific evidence. Keywords: horse; bridle; bitless bridle; welfare; equine; behavior. View Show abstract The Horse and the Lion in Achaemenid Persia: Representations of a Duality Article Full-text available Jun 2021 Eran Almagor This paper explores the ambiguous Persian Achaemenid attitude towards the horse and the lion. It examines the way these animals appear in imperial official presentations, local artifacts throughout the empire and Greek textual representations. In the case of the stallion, it looks at the imagery of horse riding or the place of the horse in society and religion alongside the employment of steeds in chariots. Images of the lion are addressed in instances where it appears to be respected as having a significant protective power and as the prey of the chase. This paper attempts to show that this ambiguity corresponds roughly to the dual image of the Persians as both pre-imperial/nomad and imperial/sedentary (and hence allegedly luxurious), a schism that is manifest in both the self-presentation of the Achaemenids and in the Greek texts. View Show abstract Civis agricola Research Proposal Full-text available Mar 2021 Alberto Félix Martin View Civis agricola Research Proposal Feb 2021 Alberto Félix Martin EL ESTUDIO DE LA ADOPCIÓN DE LA AGRICULTURA Y LA EVOLUCIÓN Y LAS ADAPTACIONES DE LAS PLANTAS SELECCIONADAS View Show abstract Holocene Distribution and Extinction of Ungulates in Northern Eurasia Article Dec 2020 BIOL BULL+ Natalya Plasteeva Vyacheslav Gasilin Michael Devyashin P. A. Kosintsev View Horses in the Late Tagar Economy: Kosogol I Settlement Materials (Krasnoyarsk Region) Article Full-text available Jan 2021 S. S. Onischenko P. V. German A. S. Savelieva The archaeological studies developed two concepts concerning the character of Tagar economy: semi-nomadic and sedentary. They are based on different approaches to burial assemblage materials, accidental findings, and general opinion on stock-raising economy in Eurasian forest-steppes and steppes. The zooarchaeological profile of Tagar settlements can resolve this argument. A high share of horse bones may mean a semi-nomadic or nomadic lifestyle, while low share of equine remains can be a sign of a sedentary economy. The research featured Tagar settlements in the forest-steppe areas of the interfluve area between the Kiya and the Chulym. The paper describes the zooarchaeological collection of the archeological site of Kоsоgol I, the largest Early Iron Age settlement in the area. The collection includes 6,634 samples, of which 687 belong to horses. The authors believe that cattle breeding was the main branch of the Tagar economy. Horses were the third most important group. However, horses were not meat animals, as bones of young horses were quite rare among the kitchen waste. The Tagars killed mature or old work horses (older than 12–13), which could not work anymore. Hunting was a secondary branch of their economy: they hunted does, as well as water and moor fowl near the settlement. The results of Kosogol I zooarchaeological assemblage study proved the theory about the sedentary cattle breeding of the early Tagar people. View Show abstract La diffusion des cultures et des langues pendant la préhistoire: quels rapports entre archéologie, linguistique et génétique Conference Paper Full-text available Jan 2008 Tomaso Di Fraia The diffusion of cultures and languages in prehistory: what connections exist between archaeology, linguistics and genetics? This paper presents a synthesis of a long research concerning methodological and epistemological problems raised by the different hypotheses that attempted to explain the diffusion of cultures and genetic features, as well as the formation and diffusion of languages. First of all, the author considers the theories of the geneticist Cavalli-Sforza and particularly the issues concerning neolithisation. The different hypotheses on the diffusion of Indo-European languages (particularly those of Gimbutas, Renfrew, Alinei and Mallory) are then examined in light of archaeological evidence. In this approach, the origin of human language is clearly separated from that of the origins of the languages which actually survived with Homo sapiens. Some examples of linguistic transformation and cultural diffusion are given, and the most advanced biological methods are considered in order to determine forms and dimensions of human mobility in prehistory. View Show abstract Show more Dereivka and the problem of horse domestication Article Full-text available Dec 1990 ANTIQUITY Marsha Levine The domestication of the horse was revolutionary in its consequences – as much so as the spread of agriculture, trade, warfare, metalwork and the other more usual subjects addressed by archaeologists studying post-Neolithic human development. For not only did it directly cause important changes in peoples' relationships to the world around them by the mobility it conferred, but also it was deeply implicated in all those other developments. In spite of that, in the past 15 years very little has been done to extend our knowledge of the subject. This study, if anything, shows that we probably know even less about the earliest domestication of the horse than we thought View Show abstract Archäozoologische Studien zur Entwicklung der Haustierhaltung in Mitteleuropa und Südskandinavien von den Anfängen bis zum ausgehenden Mittelalter Book Dec 1994 Norbert Benecke Li Na Die Berücksichtigung von Tierknochenfunden aus Grabungen ist mittlerweile eine im Selbstverständnis der Archäologie aller Epochen und Kulturen fest verankerte Forderung, die durch eine Fülle entsprechender Abhandlungen in Monographien und Aufsätzen dokumentiert ist. Die zentrale Rolle, die die Tiere für das Leben und Wirtschaften des Menschen spielen, wird darin immer wieder hervorgehoben. Freilich sind diese Studien meist mehr oder weniger stark an die Gegebenheiten des jeweiligen Fundortes gebunden, weshalb die systematische diachrone Betrachtung kaum einmal das Hauptanliegen sein konnte. Mit diesen Editionen aus den Ausgrabungen ist jedoch im Laufe der letzten Jahre eine solche Fülle von Materialien präsentiert worden, daß es Herrn Benecke erstmals möglich ist, die Entwicklungslinien der gesamten Haustierhaltung für einen größeren Teil Europas von den Anlangen bis zum Mittelalter nachzuzeichnen, wobei alle Tierarten berücksichtigt werden. Das stufenweise Ausgreifen der Domestikationen auf immer mehr Tierarten gehört zu den faszinierendsten Kapiteln der Kulturentwicklungen. Es wird in diesem Werk zugleich dargestellt, wie sich die durch die Domestikation hervorgerufenen, veränderten Lebensbedingungen der Tiere auf den Körperbau ausgewirkt haben, d. h. das Wechselspiel zwischen Mensch und Tier wird aus verschiedenen Blickwinkeln untersucht. Auf diese Weise wird das vorgelegte Werk für die europäische Ur- und Frühgeschichtsforschung zu einem Beitrag, der weit über die engeren Grenzen der Archäozoologie hinauswirken wird. Es in den Schriften zur Ur- und Frühgeschichte herauszugeben, entspricht dem universellen Anspruch, den der Begründer dieser Schriftenreihe, W. Unverzagt, verfochten hat. In der von ihm erreichten Schaffung einer eigenen Arbeitsstelle für die Archäozoologie am damaligen Institut für Vor- und Frühgeschichte der Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften im Jahr 1960, aus der letztlich die von Herrn Benecke vorgelegte Arbeit stammt, wird die Bedeutung dieser Disziplin für die Archäologie deutlich. Das Deutsche Archäologische Institut, dessen Mitarbeiter Herr Benecke seit 1992 ist, hat sich diesen Anspruch mit Nachdruck zu eigen gemacht. View Show abstract Neolithic Cemeteries and Populations in the Dnieper Basin Book Jan 1987 D. Ya. Telegin I.D. Potekhina View Heads and Hoofs Article Jun 1962 ANTIQUITY Stuart Piggott A few years ago Professor Ole Klindt-Jensen, in publishing the results of his excavations of Migration Period sites on the island of Bornholm, described a remarkable find from the Sorte Muld settlement. Here, just outside the entrance to Building II, was a small pit containing the skull of a horse, its severed fore-legs, and a pelvic bone, accompanied by a few bones of sheep, pig and dog, and sherds which dated the pit to the main occupation phase of the site, in the 5th century A.D.(FIG. 2, 1). View Show abstract New Eneolithic and Early Bronze Age Radiocarbon Dates for North Kazakhstan and South Siberia Article Oct 1997 Camb Archaeol J Marsha Levine AM Kislenko View Origins of the dog: domestication and early history Article Jan 1997 J. Clutton-Brock View Birth of the chariot Article Jan 1995 Archaeology David Anthony N.B. Vinogradov View Origins of horse husbandry Article M.A. Levine View K izucheniyu drevneishikh domashnikh loshadei vostochnoi Evropy, soobshchenie 2 Article V.I. Bibikova View Vom Wildpferd zum Hauspferd Article Jan 1971 G. Nobis View Show more Advertisement

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